Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

Abstract

Acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear should be suspected when a significant injury (usually a noncontact, cutting mechanism) is followed by immediate disability and the early onset of hemarthrosis, and, frequently, a slight lack of full extension and posteromedial and/or posterolateral joint line tenderness.Although several authors have speculated on the etiology of the 70% of ACL injuries that do not result from direct contact, the basic mechanism for this injury still eludes us. The basic mechanism appears to be associated with activities, such as decelerating and pivoting, awkward landings, and "out of control" play.This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management options for anterior cruciate ligament tears.

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