Neuromas of the Foot and Ankle

Abstract

A neuroma of the foot or ankle can occur within a traumatized nerve, in which case it is defined as a neuroma in continuity, or on the end of a nerve, when it is defined as a terminal neuroma. Iatrogenic trauma is a common etiology of neuromas of the foot and ankle. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of neuromas of the foot and ankle and the clinical symptoms and signs required for their diagnosis. Their treatment may be nonsurgical, through medical, physical, or electrical means, or surgical, which is done for neuromas that fail to respond to conservative measures. This article also discusses reconstruction for a neuroma in continuity, and excision, excision with redirection, and the use of conduits and other measures for neuromas recalcitrant to standard treatment. The individual nerves of the foot and ankle, the usual sites and causes of injury leading to a neuroma, and the optimal management for each nerve affected by a neuroma are described, with examples based on the literature and direct experience.

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