Metabolic Bone Disease in the Foot and Ankle

Abstract

Metabolic bone disease results either from the uncoupling of normal bone formation from bone resorption or errors in metabolism. Although the effects of such disease are systemic, their manifestations in the foot and ankle vary with the functional demands on the bones, articulations, and soft tissues in this region of the body. Often, these problems present to the foot and ankle surgeon as incidental findings in the evaluation of other, more common problems. In other instances, structural insufficiency and overt fracture or joint inflammation occur as direct results of the pathophysiology underlying bone disease. In either case, recognition of the essential elements of metabolic bone disease is critical to its diagnosis and either direct intervention or prompt referral for its treatment.

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