Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Spine Surgery

Abstract

Intraoperative neuromonitoring is used frequently during spine surgery to provide the surgeon with real-time identification of potential neurologic insults, permitting immediate interventions that can reduce iatrogenic injuries. Somatosensory-evoked potentials, motor-evoked potentials, and electromyography are discrete neuromonitoring modalities used to evaluate separate portions of the nervous system. Understanding of neuroanatomy and the basic principles associated with each modality is crucial for maximizing the efficacy of intraoperative neuromonitoring in spine surgery. In this article, we describe the different modalities of intraoperative neuromonitoring, explain the basic principles of each, and provide examples of its utility in spine surgery.

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