JAAOS, Volume 20, No. 10

Shoulder Dislocation in the Older Patient

Approximately 20% of all shoulder dislocations occur in patients aged >60 years. Older patients who sustain a primary shoulder dislocation are much less likely than younger patients to suffer from recurrence. However, older patients are more likely than younger patients to sustain injuries to the rotator cuff, axillary nerve, or brachial plexus. Rotator cuff tears are significantly more common than nerve palsies, and rotator cuff tears can be mistaken for nerve palsies. Older patients with persistent shoulder pain and dysfunction after dislocation should be carefully evaluated for rotator cuff pathology. Although dislocation is a common injury in the older population, these concomitant injuries—especially of the rotator cuff—are often missed.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

    Arthritis of the Distal Radioulnar Joint: From Darrach to Total Joint Arthroplasty

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is a complex structure that contributes to full, painless forearm rotation and weight bearing. Stability requires adequate bony architecture and robust soft-tissue support. Arthritis of the DRUJ between the sigmoid notch of the distal radius and the ulnar head can be caused by traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, and degenerative processes. Initial management of symptomatic DRUJ arthritis is nonsurgical. Surgery is reserved for patients with refractory pain. Although outcomes typically are positive following excision of the distal ulna, serious potential postoperative complications include instability and potentially painful impingement of the residual distal ulnar stump. Procedures used to manage the unstable residual ulna include soft-tissue stabilization techniques and DRUJ implant arthroplasty.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hand and Wrist

      Graft Tensioning During Knee Ligament Reconstruction: Principles and Practice

      Failure to correctly tension grafts may overconstrain or underconstrain the knee, potentially predisposing the patient to deteriorating clinical and/or radiographic results over time. Knee ligament reconstruction requires a fundamental understanding of native anatomy, ligament biomechanics, and principles of graft tensioning. A successful strategy for graft tensioning takes into account the specific biomechanics of the ligament or ligaments in question, the mechanical properties of the graft selected, the chosen fixation method, the selected tensioning method (ie, manual or mechanical), and the overall goal of the reconstruction (ie, isometry versus anisometry).

          • Subspecialty:
          • Sports Medicine

        Malignant Osseous Tumors of the Pediatric Spine

        In the pediatric population, malignant osseous tumors of the spine include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, lymphoma, and metastatic neuroblastoma. Although these tumors are rare, prompt diagnosis and recognition are critical to the overall prognosis. Improved understanding of the natural history of spine deformity, combined with advances in imaging, surgical technology, radiation therapy, and chemotherapeutic regimens, has improved survival rates and decreased rates of local recurrence—especially recurrence of low-grade lesions. Prognosis for patients with high-grade lesions with distant metastasis on presentation remains exceedingly poor. Recognition of these spine tumors and prompt referral to a tertiary care center that specializes in oncology can optimize patient outcomes.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Pediatric Orthopaedics

          Principles of Rotationplasty

          Rotationplasty is a reconstructive, limb-sparing option for management of lower extremity bone deficiency. This technique involves an intercalary resection, followed by 180° rotation of the distal limb to allow the ankle to function as a knee joint when it is fitted with a modified below-knee prosthesis. Gait analysis and functional outcome studies have reported favorable results with rotationplasty compared with those of above-knee amputation. Moreover, patient satisfaction with rotationplasty is higher than with other limb salvage procedures. The primary drawback of this procedure is patient acceptance of the limb's appearance.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics