JAAOS, Volume 23, No. 5

The Opioid Epidemic: Impact on Orthopaedic Surgery

The past few decades have seen an alarming rise in opioid use in the United States, and the negative consequences from diversion of opioids for nontherapeutic use are dramatically increasing. A significant number of orthopaedic patients are at risk for repercussions from both therapeutic and nontherapeutic opioid use. Orthopaedic surgeons are the third highest prescribers of opioid prescriptions among physicians in the United States. Thus, it is important for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the detrimental effects of opioid abuse on individuals and society and to recognize objective measures to identify patients at risk for nontherapeutic opioid use. These measures include elements of the patient history, recognition of aberrant behaviors, prescription drug monitoring programs, and opioid risk-assessment tools.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Trauma

    Evaluation and Management of the Painful Total Ankle Arthroplasty

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly popular treatment option for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis. Although improved short- and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes have been achieved with TAA, revision surgery may be necessary in the setting of aseptic loosening, subsidence, impingement, arthrofibrosis, or infection. Factors such as patient selection, implant design, and surgical technique can all contribute to TAA failure. Treatment of patients with a painful TAA is complex and requires careful consideration of symptom history, workup, and nonsurgical and surgical treatment options. Surgical management of failed TAA includes arthrodesis, revision surgery, or below-knee amputation.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Foot and Ankle

      Return to Play Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

      In athletes, significant advances in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques and rehabilitation have led to improved surgical outcomes and increased expectations for return to play. Although an expeditious return to sport has become an achievable and often realistic goal, the factors that most influence safe, timely, and successful return to play remain unknown. The literature offers mainly anecdotal evidence to guide the team physician in the decision-making process, with a paucity of criteria and consensus guidelines available to help determine return to sport. Attempts have been made to introduce criteria-based progression in the rehabilitation process, but validation of subjective and objective criteria has been difficult. Nevertheless, several pertinent factors in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods may affect return to play following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Further research is warranted to validate reliable, consensus guidelines with objective criteria to facilitate the return to play process.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Sports Medicine

        Management of Complex Elbow Dislocations: A Mechanistic Approach

        Complex elbow dislocations (ie, fracture-dislocations) are challenging injuries to treat and may result in significant patient morbidity. Chronic instability, posttraumatic arthrosis, and poor functional outcomes are frequent. Orthopaedic surgeons should strive to optimize elbow function through restoration of articular congruity and stability coupled with early rehabilitation. Although most of these injuries require surgical management, not all complex elbow dislocations are equivalent. Understanding elbow biomechanics and the injury mechanism provides valuable insight into the variations of pathology that may be observed. Identifying the particular fracture pattern, such as an axial loading, valgus posterolateral rotatory, or varus posteromedial rotatory injury mechanism, helps guide appropriate treatment.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Trauma

          Skin Cancer of the Hand: Current Concepts

          Skin cancer accounts for most hand cancers. Prompt recognition of lesions with malignant potential can lead to early treatment and decreased disease burden. Understanding the appropriate diagnostic algorithm for a given lesion facilitates accurate staging, which guides therapy. A multidisciplinary approach that includes hand surgeons, dermatologists, oncologists, and radiation oncologists is often necessary to manage advanced disease. For most invasive tumors, the primary treatment modality remains surgical excision; however, several effective nonsurgical treatments exist for management of unresectable or low-grade cancers.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Hand and Wrist

              • Musculoskeletal Oncology

            The Glenoid Component in Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty

            Ideal management of the glenoid in anatomic shoulder arthroplasty remains controversial. Glenoid component loosening remains a common source of clinical concern and, in young, active patients, implantation of a glenoid prosthesis is often avoided. Efforts to decrease glenoid loosening have resulted in changes to prosthetic design and implantation techniques. Currently, a wide variety of glenoid component options are available, including metal-backed or all-polyethylene, bone ingrowth or ongrowth, inset, and augmented designs. Additionally, several alternatives are available for the young, active patient, including hemiarthroplasty, nonprosthetic resurfacing, and tissue interposition. Many recent clinical and biomechanical studies have examined these implant options. A thorough knowledge of glenoid anatomy, pathology, implant options, indications, and principles of implantation is necessary to optimize the outcome following anatomic shoulder arthroplasty.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Shoulder and Elbow

              Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Evidence-Based Guideline

              Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Evidence-Based Guideline is based on a systematic review of the current scientific and clinical research. This guideline has been endorsed by the National Academy of Sports Medicine, the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, the National Athletic Trainers' Association, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. The guideline contains 20 recommendations, including both diagnosis and treatment. In addition, the work group highlighted the need for better research in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.