JAAOS, Volume 23, No. 7

Advances in Surgical Management of Intra-articular Calcaneus Fractures

Intra-articular calcaneus fractures are commonly sustained after high-energy trauma, and a variety of techniques exists for anatomic reduction and surgical fixation. Traditional approaches using an extended L-shaped lateral incision with lateral plating for open reduction and internal fixation have relatively high complication rates. Common complications include hematoma formation, skin edge necrosis, wound breakdown, and superficial or deep infection. As a result, less invasive techniques have been developed in recent years, including limited-incision sinus tarsi open reduction and internal fixation, percutaneous fixation, and arthroscopic-assisted fixation. These techniques are associated with lower complication rates and equivalent clinical and radiographic outcomes in certain fracture patterns and patient populations.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Foot and Ankle

    Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Following Spinal Deformity Surgery in the Pediatric Patient

    Proper understanding and restoration of sagittal balance is critical in spinal deformity surgery, including conditions such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis. One potential complication following spinal reconstruction is proximal junctional kyphosis. The prevalence of proximal junctional kyphosis varies in the literature, and several patient- and surgery-related risk factors have been identified. To date, the development of proximal junctional kyphosis has not been shown to lead to a negative clinical outcome following spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or Scheuermann kyphosis. Treatment options range from simple observation in asymptomatic cases to revision surgery with extension of the fusion proximally. Several techniques and technologies are emerging that seek to address and prevent proximal junctional kyphosis.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Pediatric Orthopaedics

      Closed Sagittal Band Injury of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint

      Although it is an uncommon injury, traumatic rupture of the sagittal band often results in subluxation or dislocation of the extensor digitorum communis tendon. The radial sagittal band prevents ulnar subluxation of the extensor tendon at the metacarpophalangeal joint. Injury may result from a direct blow to the hand or from relatively low-energy mechanisms. Symptoms range from metacarpophalangeal joint pain and edema to dislocation of the extensor tendon. Associated injuries include collateral ligament sprains, capsular injury, and osteochondral fractures. Many acute injuries can be managed nonsurgically with extension splints. Optimal management of subacute or chronic injuries remains undefined. Surgical management consists of repair or reconstruction of the radial sagittal band. Numerous adjunctive surgical techniques have been described to prevent subluxation of the extensor tendon.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Hand and Wrist

        Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future

        After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Sports Medicine

          Contemporary Medical and Surgical Management of X-linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets

          X-linked hypophosphatemia is an inheritable disorder of renal phosphate wasting that clinically manifests with rachitic bone pathology. X-linked hypophosphatemia is frequently misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Optimized medical therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. Even with ideal medical management, progressive bony deformity may develop in some children and adults. Medical treatment is paramount to the success of orthopaedic surgical procedures in both children and adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Successful correction of complex, multiapical bone deformities found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia is possible with careful surgical planning and exacting surgical technique. Multiple methods of deformity correction are used, including acute and gradual correction. Treatment of some pediatric bony deformity with guided growth techniques may be possible.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics

            Novel Strategies for the Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Infections in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients

            Orthopaedic infections that occur after trauma are common. Clinical examination, laboratory markers, imaging modalities, and culture and molecular technologies are used to aid the diagnosis of infection. Culture methods comprise the backbone of diagnostic systems used in hospital laboratory settings; however, several studies have questioned the ability of these techniques to adequately identify infections, particularly in cases where orthopaedic implants were used or when the presence of biofilm bacteria is suspected. Advances in imaging and molecular diagnostics can provide orthopaedic surgeons with an improved means of diagnosing and treating infections.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma