JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 13

Sex-based Differences in Common Sports Injuries

The patient's sex plays an important role in mediating the risk for, and experience of, disease. Injuries of the musculoskeletal system are no exception to this phenomenon. Increasing evidence shows that the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes for male and female patients with common sports injuries may vary widely. Stress fracture, which is associated with the female athlete triad, is a sports injury with known sex-based differences. Other common sports-related injuries may also have distinct sex-based differences. Understanding these differences is important to optimize each patient's musculoskeletal care.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Sports Medicine

    Hip Instability in Patients With Down Syndrome

    The incidence of hip instability in children with Down syndrome is 1% to 7%. The natural history is often progressive, with the typical onset of hypermobility of the hip evolving to habitual dislocation, persistent subluxation, and fixed dislocation, and eventually leading to the loss of independent mobility. Treatment focuses on stabilizing the hip joint and depends on the patient's age and the severity of the disease. Typically, surgical intervention is recommended for the treatment of patients with habitual dislocation, subluxation, and complete dislocation of the hip. When indicated, surgical management must take into account associated anatomic abnormalities of the femur and acetabulum. Hip instability in Down syndrome may persist despite surgical intervention and remains a difficult condition to manage.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hip

      The Role of Mentoring in the Development of Successful Orthopaedic Surgeons

      Mentoring plays an integral role in orthopaedic surgeons' career development and personal growth. Effective mentors are committed to their roles, provide skilled instructional support, model continuous learning, and communicate optimism. Numerous obstacles impede productive mentoring relationships in medicine, including reluctance to ask for help, time constraints due to extensive work obligations, lack of institutional support, relational difficulties, and lack of mentoring skills. Effective partnerships require a concerted effort to establish behaviors conducive to mentoring, such as sharing knowledge and providing constructive feedback. Given that women represent only 13% of orthopaedic surgery residents and racial/ethnic minorities account for 3% to 10% of US orthopaedic surgeons, mentoring may help diversify the workforce by providing early exposure and professional support to physicians from underrepresented demographic groups. Orthopaedic leaders must embrace their professional obligation to cultivate and inspire the next generation of orthopaedic surgeons.

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthpaedics

        Staging of Bone and Soft-tissue Sarcomas

        The purpose of staging in orthopaedic oncology is to provide a framework for classifying tumors based on their risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis to guide treatment decisions. Two separate systems are commonly used to categorize bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society system for bone sarcomas and the Enneking system for soft-tissue sarcomas are the original staging systems developed by orthopaedic surgeons. The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas are periodically updated based on new data, and they are currently on their eighth edition.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Soft-Tissue

            • Musculoskeletal Oncology

          Managing Sports-related Concussions From Time of Injury Through Return to Play

          Sports-related concussions continue to generate widespread interest. A concussion is a complex pathophysiologic process, with or without loss of consciousness, that results in a disturbance of brain function. Risk factors include age <18 years, female sex, and history of a previous concussion. A sideline physical examination with standardized assessment tools can assist diagnosis. Management for suspected concussion begins with immediate removal from play and requires clinical follow-up. Symptoms are usually self-limited and resolve within 2 to 3 weeks. Initial treatment consists of a reduction in cognitive activity and physical rest. A stepwise return-to-play protocol, taking into consideration state laws, with a gradual increase in activity until the athlete is able to perform full activity without symptoms should be followed. Neuropsychologic testing may be used as a tool in management. For prolonged concussion, physical rehabilitation or medications for headaches, mood, or sleep disturbance may be required. Education, rule changes, and equipment improvements may assist in prevention. The long-term consequences of concussions are not fully understood and merit additional research.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Sports Medicine

              • Sports Injuries

            Orthopaedic Resident Surgical Case Log Disparities Observed in the Next Accreditation System

            Introduction: With the institution of the Next Accreditation System (NAS), case log procedures fundamentally changed. Unless multiple entries are made, only one procedure per case is credited for procedure counts. We hypothesized that the NAS caused notable changes in national procedure data.

            Methods: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Orthopaedic Surgery Case Logs National Data Reports from 2008 to 2016 were analyzed to calculate differences in case log data before and after NAS implementation.

            Results: In the first academic year post-NAS, the average total procedures decreased by 36%. Total procedures increased the following 2 years but still represent a decrease of >30% from pre-NAS data. An average of 580 fewer total procedures per resident were reported in the 3 years post-NAS (P = 0.001). Regression analysis showed notable decreases in credited procedures in all but two categories.

            Conclusions: The decrease in logged procedures with the NAS may be related to new guidance, resident logging habits, an actual decrease in surgical experience, or unknown causes, or combinations of these factors. A new baseline of case data may be emerging post-NAS. To ensure the highest quality education, NAS case logs warrant continued study to determine how the data should be used in residency education and accreditation decisions.

                • Subspecialty:
                • General Orthpaedics