JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 23

Bundled Payment Arrangements: Keys to Success

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is committed to moving 50% of its fee-for-service care to value-based alternative payment models by 2018. The Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model is a mandatory agency program that bundles lower extremity joint arthroplasties into episodes of care that extend from the index admission to 90 days after discharge. This program, which began on April 1, 2016, includes many of the hospitals that perform total joint arthroplasties. As with other bundled payment arrangements, this model is built around seven principles that orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with to maximize participation.

      • Subspecialty:
      • General Orthopaedics

    Current Concepts in Orthopaedic Care Disparities

    Healthcare delivery is profoundly affected by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status. The effect of these factors on patient health and the quality of care received is being studied in more detail. Orthopaedic surgery over the past several years has paid increasing attention to these disparities as well. Not only do these disparities exist with regard to accessing care but also with regard to the quality of care received and postoperative outcomes. Total joint arthroplasty, hip fractures, and spine surgery represent areas where the effect of these factors has been reported. Not only is it essential for the clinician to understand the extent of care disparities but also the manner in which these disparities affect patient health and outcomes within the orthopaedic surgery setting. Strategies should be devised to minimize the effect of these factors on clinical care and patient health.

        • Subspecialty:
        • General Orthopaedics

      Advances in Wound Management

      Wound management is a notable healthcare and financial burden, accounting for >$10 billion in annual healthcare spending in the United States. A multidisciplinary approach involving orthopaedic and plastic surgeons, wound care nursing, and medical and support staff is often necessary to improve outcomes. Orthopaedic surgeons must be familiar with the fundamental principles and evidenced-based concepts for the management of acute and chronic wounds. Knowledge of surgical dressings, negative pressure wound therapy, tissue expanders, dermal apposition, biologics, and extracellular matrices can aide practitioners in optimizing wound care.

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthopaedics

        Association of the Graft Size and Arthrofibrosis in Young Patients After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

        Introduction: This study investigated the association of graft-related surgical factors and patient characteristics with the odds of arthrofibrosis after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R).

        Methods: A retrospective case-control study assessed consecutive patients who underwent primary ACL-R in one tertiary pediatric hospital. Each arthrofibrosis case was matched to three controls for sex, calendar year, and age at the time of ACL-R, as well as the primary surgeon. Conditional multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent association of graft diameter, time from injury to ACL-R, concomitant knee pathologies, and body mass index.

        Results: Twenty arthrofibrosis cases of 1,121 ACL-R patients (incidence 1.8%) were matched to 60 controls resulting in the mean age of 14.5 years. An increase of 1 mm graft diameter was associated with 3.2-times increased odds of arthrofibrosis. Other variables were not independently associated with arthrofibrosis.

        Conclusion: For young patients, the decision on the graft size must consider the possibility of arthrofibrosis with a larger graft versus reinjury with a smaller graft.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Sports Medicine

          Natural History of the Elbow Bony Architecture in Patients With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and the Association With Flexion Contractures

          Purpose: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the radiographic anatomy of the elbow and try to determine its possible relation to elbow flexion contracture in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI).

          Methods: All patients with a history of OBPI with elbow flexion contracture who were evaluated clinically and radiographically were included in the study. A review was performed to include serial elbow examinations and previous treatment. Radiographs of the elbow were examined for the presence of bony abnormalities as a potential cause of elbow flexion contracture or the presence of progressive arthritic changes over time.

          Results: Fifty-nine patients with a history of OBPI with elbow flexion contracture were included in the study. Of them, 53 had normal bony architecture, 2 had mild radial head subluxation, and 4 had chronic anterior radial head dislocations. At a mean age at final clinical follow-up of 21 years (range, 7 to 83 years), only 7% of patients had pain localized to their elbow. There were only three patients with elbow arthritis, including two of the four with radial head dislocations.

          Conclusions: In the absence of a radial head dislocation, most elbow joints do not seem to undergo abnormal anatomic bony changes in patients with OBPI and flexion contractures.

          Level of Evidence: Level IV (retrospective case series)

              • Subspecialty:
              • Shoulder and Elbow

            Comparison of Short-term Complication Rates Between Cephalomedullary Hip Screw Devices and Sliding Hip Screws: An Analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database

            Background: The literature pertaining to the management of intertrochanteric hip fractures using cephalomedullary hip screws (CMHSs) and sliding hip screws (SHSs) has shown varying results. CMHS use has increased over time without validation of its superiority in the literature.

            Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program database. Patients who had sustained a peritrochanteric hip fracture were identified. Short-term (<30 day) complications were identified with adjustments made for preoperative comorbidities. We also examined the relative percentages of CMHS and SHS surgeries over time.

            Results: A total of 14,415 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Patients undergoing SHS surgery were generally healthier, having a lower American College of Surgeon class, preoperative bleeding, hypertension, pulmonary risk factors, congestive heart failure, and higher preoperative hematocrit. After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, we noted a higher rate of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; P = 0.024), bleeding (OR = 1.10; P = 0.007), pulmonary complications (OR = 1.19; P = 0.049), and clotting events (OR = 1.35; P = 0.035) in the CMHS group. We observed a higher rate of urinary tract infection (OR = 0.81; P = 0.023) and length of stay (1.0 days; P < 0.0001) in the SHS group. The overall percentage of SHS cases was 33% and trended lower over time.

            Conclusions: Although differences in complication subtypes and the overall complication rate were found, further multicenter, randomized controlled trials would be helpful in elucidating differences between the treatment groups. The popularity of the CMHS continues to increase over time.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Adult Reconstruction