JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 3

Polydactyly of the Hand

Polydactyly is one of the most common congenital hand deformities managed by orthopaedic surgeons. It is most often found in isolation; however, rarely, it may be associated with genetic syndromes. Polydactyly is classified as postaxial, preaxial, or central depending on the radioulnar location of the duplicated digits. Postaxial polydactyly, which affects the ulnar side of the hand, is most common and is typically managed with excision or suture ligation of the supernumerary digit. Preaxial polydactyly, which affects the thumb or radial side of the hand, often requires reconstructive techniques to ensure a functional, stable thumb. Central polydactyly is much less common, and reconstruction can be challenging.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Hand

      • Hand and Wrist

    Radiographic Evaluation of Acetabular Fractures: Review and Update on Methodology

    Despite increased availability of modern imaging techniques, plain radiographs remain the initial step in the classification of acetabular fractures. The ability to interpret the injury configuration allows the surgeon to develop a thorough preoperative plan and to evaluate the quality of reduction and fixation intraoperatively. Proficiency in the mental conversion of a two-dimensional radiograph into a three-dimensional conceptual image is imperative. The widely used radiographic classification scheme developed by Judet and Letournel in the 1960s is both practical and simple. However, understanding the subtleties of the fracture pattern can be a challenge even for experienced surgeons. Current evaluation methods include CT and three-dimensional reconstructions in addition to plain radiographs. Our diagnostic algorithm uses three plain radiographs to classify the fracture into one of the 10 fracture patterns described by Judet and Letournel.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Adult Reconstruction

        • Hip

      Orthopaedic Manifestations of Sickle Cell Disease

      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in hemolytic anemia related to abnormal hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels. SCD is characterized by vascular occlusive episodes, visceral sequestration, and aplastic or hemolytic crises. These crises most commonly occur in bone. The orthopaedic manifestations of SCD comprise much of the morbidity associated with this disorder. Osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis are among the most disabling and serious musculoskeletal complications in patients with SCD. Effective management of the bone and joint sequelae requires an accurate diagnosis, an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, and knowledge of available medical and surgical treatment alternatives. The major orthopaedic manifestations of SCD are osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and bone infarction. Patients with SCD require close monitoring in the perioperative period because of the risk for vasoocclusive crisis.

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthopaedics

        Challenges in the Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Skeletally Immature Patients

        Although initially considered rare, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures in pediatric patients recently have increased substantially as a result of greater awareness of the injury and increased participation in youth sports. Although pediatric patients with an ACL injury and a clinically stable joint may handle the injury well and return to sports activity without requiring surgical reconstruction, young, active patients with an ACL rupture and an unstable joint may be good candidates for ACL reconstruction to prevent ongoing instability and additional joint damage. ACL reconstruction techniques have been developed to prevent physeal injury in skeletally immature patients. The surgical treatment of skeletally immature patients with an ACL rupture may differ from that of adults with an ACL rupture and presents unique challenges with regard to reconstruction technique selection, graft preparation, rehabilitation, and return to sports activity. Orthopaedic surgeons should understand various physeal-sparing ACL reconstruction techniques and the general challenges associated with the surgical management of ACL ruptures in pediatric patients.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Knee

            • Pediatric Orthopaedics

          Compliance With the AAOS Guidelines for Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Survey of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons

          Introduction: The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) published a series of evidence-based guidelines for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We studied compliance with these guidelines among orthopaedic surgeons.

          Methods: We sent a survey to members of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons. It included five clinical vignettes based on the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic system for classification of knee OA. Respondents selected treatment currently supported or not supported by the AAOS guidelines.

          Results: Of 345 responses, the frequency of use of recommended interventions was 80%, 82%, 21%, 50%, and 98% for OA at stages 0 through 4, respectively. For stage 2 and stage 3 OA, intra-articular hyaluronic acid was the most commonly selected intervention not recommended by the AAOS.

          Discussion: Apparently, AAOS guidelines on the treatment of OA have not reached the orthopaedic community, resulting in lack of treatment consensus and continued use of modalities with no proven patient benefits.

          Conclusions: Management of moderate to severe knee OA does not align with AAOS guidelines. We encourage researchers to conduct clinical trials to identify the role of intra-articular corticosteroids in treating this condition.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Knee

              • Adult Reconstruction

            Influence of Trainee Experience on Choice of Orthopaedic Subspecialty Fellowship

            Introduction: Most orthopaedic surgery residents elect to pursue additional subspecialty training; however, factors influencing the choice of subspecialty and the ways that these factors change during training are not well understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine, on the basis of a trainee’s postgraduate year (PGY), whether variability exists in factors valued when choosing a specific subspecialty.

            Methods: We emailed an online survey (intended for distribution to current trainees) to a list of orthopaedic surgery residency program coordinators in the United States. The survey queried demographic information, PGY level, and the importance of 14 discrete factors in the selection of fellowship specialty according to a Likert scale rating from 1 to 4.

            Results: There were 359 respondents representing an even distribution of PGY levels. Junior trainees assigned greater relative value to geographic location, on-call responsibilities, financial compensation, and the tradition of the residency program, whereas senior trainees assigned greater relative value to variety of cases and intellectual stimulation (all P < 0.05).

            Discussion: The differences seen in factors valued based on trainee experience may highlight the relative importance of greater exposure to the breadth of orthopaedic surgical practice during training and increasing awareness of clinical competencies and responsibilities.

            Conclusions: When deciding on orthopaedic subspecialty choice, junior trainees value lifestyle factors relatively more than do senior trainees, whereas senior trainees value case variety and stimulation relatively more than junior trainees do.

                • Subspecialty:
                • General Orthopaedics