JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 6

Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Research Tool in Orthopaedic Surgery

Ultrasonography is an imaging modality that facilitates the diagnosis of pathology and injection therapy without exposing the patient to radiation. In addition, ultrasonography has become popular because of its portability, low cost, and production of real-time tomographic images that provide a cross-sectional view of anatomic structures. Despite its benefits and widespread adoption in general medicine and other specialties, however, ultrasonography is not as well adapted as a diagnostic and research tool in orthopaedic surgery. An understanding of the basic principles of ultrasonography and the evidence supporting its use can aid the orthopaedic surgeon in applying this modality appropriately in clinical practice.

      • Subspecialty:
      • General Orthopaedics

    Orthopaedic Considerations in the Management of Skeletal Sarcoidosis

    Advanced imaging has demonstrated that musculoskeletal manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis are more common than previously thought. A definitive strategy for the management of osseous sarcoidosis has not been defined. Some lesions resolve spontaneously, and no systemic medication for sarcoidosis consistently resolves lesions. The orthopaedic surgeon treating patients with musculoskeletal sarcoidosis must make an appropriate diagnosis of bony lesions, seek multidisciplinary input from specialists in pulmonology and rheumatology regarding systemic treatment, and decide when surgery is necessary to prevent dysfunction.

        • Subspecialty:
        • General Orthopaedics

      The Thrower's Shoulder

      Overhead athletes subject their shoulders to extreme repetitive torque, compression, distraction, and translation stresses, resulting in adaptive changes of the soft tissues and osseous structures within and around the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic adaptations result in biomechanical enhancements, which improve performance. Understanding the difference between necessary and adaptive changes and pathologic findings is critical when making treatment decisions. Injuries to the shoulder of the overhead athlete can be generally classified into three groups: internal impingement, internal impingement with acquired secondary anterior instability, and primary anterior or multidirectional instability. Although advances in surgical techniques have allowed surgeons to address the pathology in these groups, merely attempting to restore the shoulder to so-called normal can adversely alter adaptive changes that allow high levels of performance.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Sports Medicine

        Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury About the Knee: Anatomy, Evaluation, and Management

        The lateral collateral ligament is the primary varus stabilizer of the tibiofemoral joint. Diagnosing an injury to this ligament can be challenging in the setting of multiligamentous trauma; however, failure to recognize these injuries can result in instability of the knee and unsatisfactory outcomes after cruciate ligament reconstruction. Recent literature exploring the anatomy and biomechanics of the lateral collateral ligament has enhanced our understanding and improved diagnosis and management of these injuries. Physical examination and imaging studies also are important in diagnosis and can facilitate classification of lateral collateral ligament tears, which affects treatment decisions. Nonsurgical, reparative, and reconstructive techniques can all be used to manage lateral collateral ligament injury about the knee; the optimal treatment is selected on the basis of injury severity.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Knee

            • Adult Reconstruction

          Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

          The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. To provide the evidence foundation for this AUC, the AAOS Evidence-Based Medicine Unit provided the writing panel and voting panel with the 2016 AAOS Clinical Practice Guideline titled Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. The Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications typical of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome in clinical practice, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of treatments. The 135 patient scenarios and 6 treatments were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

              • Subspecialty:
              • Hand

              • Wrist

              • Hand and Wrist

            Sleep Quality in Patients With Rotator Cuff Disease

            Background: Little is known about the influence of rotator cuff pathology on sleep. The purpose of this study was to determine which patient-reported factors correlate with sleep disturbance in patients with rotator cuff disease.

            Methods: A nonrandomized, cross-sectional cohort study was performed to evaluate the effects of rotator cuff disease on sleep quality. Data collected at time zero (before any treatment) included the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation rating, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, patient demographics, and medical comorbidities. Statistical analysis included the Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis to determine which patient-reported factors were associated with sleep disturbance.

            Results: Nocturnal pain was reported by 91% of the 391 participants (274 with tendinitis and 117 with rotator cuff tears). Participants had a mean age of 57 years. Pearson correlation coefficients determined that poor sleep quality in one group or both the tendinitis and the rotator cuff tear groups was associated with higher pain visual analog scale scores (0.27 and 0.31; P = 0.004 and P < 0.0001, respectively), depression (0.27 and 0.30; P < 0.01), female sex (0.24 and 0.27; P < 0.001), presence of low back pain (0.25 and 0.27; P < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (0.24 in the rotator cuff tear group; P < 0.01), and increased body mass index (0.22 and 0.27; P = 0.02).

            Discussion: The status of the rotator cuff did not correlate with increasing symptoms of shoulder pain or with worse sleep quality as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These results support the theory that worsening symptoms of shoulder pain may not be clearly associated with rotator cuff disease severity.

            Conclusion: Worse sleep quality scores in patients with rotator cuff disease are associated with pain, depression, female sex, low back pain, diabetes mellitus, and high body mass index. Overall, sleep quality did not differ among patients with varying rotator cuff disease severity. Only hypertension (in patients with rotator cuff tears) and concurrent cervical pathology (in patients with tendinitis) were uniquely related to the disease classification. Further investigation is needed to better define how these factors interact and influence nocturnal shoulder pain and sleep quality in patients with rotator cuff disease.

            Level of Evidence: Level III prognostic cohort study

                • Subspecialty:
                • Shoulder and Elbow

                • Shoulder

              No Difference Between Bracing and No Bracing After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures

              Introduction: The use of a postoperative brace may be beneficial after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. However, bracing has potential drawbacks related to cost, fitting, wound complications, and compliance. We hypothesized that no difference will be found between patients with and without bracing after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

              Methods: In this prospective, comparative trial, patients were randomized to 6 weeks of bracing or no bracing after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Functional, subjective, and radiographic outcomes were recorded. Patients with an open physis, unstable ligamentous injuries, extensor mechanism disruption, and/or <6 months of prospective outcome data were excluded.

              Results: The 24 patients with bracing (average age, 50 ± 16 years; 14 women and 10 men) were compared with the 25 patients without bracing (average age, 51 ± 12 years [P = 0.74]; 9 women and 16 men). No statistically significant differences were found in most of the functional, subjective, and radiographic outcomes, including fracture characteristics, complications, postoperative range of motion, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form scores, and union rates. In the nonbraced group, one patient had late joint collapse with valgus malalignment (>10°). Two wound complications occurred in the braced group and four wound complications occurred in the nonbraced group, but this difference was not statistically significant.

              Discussion: Improvements in conventional and locking plate technology have allowed more reliable rigid internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. However, the use of a brace for postoperative rehabilitation after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures continues to be debated.

              Conclusion: Our prospective study showed no statistically significant difference between bracing and no bracing after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures in terms of functional, subjective, and radiographic outcomes.

              Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level II

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Foot

                  • Foot and Ankle