OKOJ, Volume 6, No. 5

Common Dance and Ballet Injuries of the Foot and Ankle

Injuries of the foot and ankle are common in individuals participating in dance and classical ballet. These injuries are typically the result of stress and overuse, although some are likely related to developmental abnormalities that are influenced by pushing the ankle joint beyond its normal physiological limits. Although many foot and ankle conditions are common in dancers, this article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of conditions that are specific and common in ballet: symptomatic os trigonum, triggering of the flexor hallucis longus tendon, and certain types of stress fractures.

    • Keywords:
    • symptomatic os trigonum

    • stress fracture

    • fibular stress fracture

    • navicular stress fracture

    • sesamoiditis

    • sesamoid stress fracture

    • metatarsal stress fracture

    • stenosing tenosynovitis

    • flexor hallucis longus triggering

    • peroneal tendinitis

    • peroneal subluxation

    • peroneal entrapment

    • peroneal attritional tears

    • peroneal tendon dislocation

    • peroneal tendon subluxation

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

    • Sports Medicine

Rheumatoid Hand: Flexor Tenosynovitis

Flexor tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the synovial lining of the flexor tendon sheaths of the wrist and digits. The disease occurs in 64% to 94% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and can lead to pain, hand dysfunction, and tendon rupture. Clinical manifestations include crepitus, triggering, locking, and decreased active motion of the digits. Nonsurgical treatment consists of rest, splinting, and local corticosteroid injection. Surgical intervention is warranted after 4 to 6 months of unsuccessful medical treatment. This article discusses the use of digital tenosynovectomy to improve flexor tendon gliding, prevent tendon rupture, and improve function of the hand.

    • Keywords:
    • flexor tendon sheath infection

    • inflammatory flexor tenosynovitis

    • trigger finger

    • de Quervain tendinitis

    • digital tenosynovectomy

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Scoliosis is abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine. Some of the vertebrae in a scoliotic spine also may show some degree of rotation, which results in asymmetry about the shoulder, waist, and rib cage. Scoliosis affects approximately 2% of the population, and, in most cases, is idiopathic, meaning that it has an unknown cause. Scoliosis is primarily a childhood disease, but it can also occur in adults. In children, idiopathic scoliosis usually develops in middle or late childhood, before puberty. This article reviews the various etiologies and diagnostic tests for scoliosis. Treatment options, which are based on an understanding of the natural history of the disease, are discussed. Extensive consideration is also given to complications of spinal surgery, particularly neural injury and infection.

    • Keywords:
    • early onset scoliosis

    • early onset idiopathic scoliosis

    • late onset scoliosis

    • late onset idiopathic scoliosis

    • adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    • juvenile idiopathic scoliosis

    • infantile idiopathic scoliosis

    • thoracic scoliosis

    • thoracolumbar scoliosis

    • lumbar scoliosis

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

    • Spine