OKOJ, Volume 7, No. 4

The Orthopaedic Management of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement that is often associated with spasticity or other abnormalities of muscle tone resulting from an abnormality of the brain that occurred during fetal development or in the neonatal period. Although brain abnormalities in patients with cerebral palsy cannot be repaired, motor function can be altered via interventions in the extremities, thereby reducing motor deficits and improving the appearance and efficiency of gait. Such nonsurgical interventions include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and recreational therapy as well as the use of assistive devices and orthotic equipment. Surgery alone is insufficient for patients with cerebral palsy; proper therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach. General surgical principles for children with spastic diplegia are specifically discussed.

    • Keywords:
    • spastic diplegia

    • spastic hemiplegia

    • spastic quadriplegia

    • spasticity

    • dystonia

    • extrapyramidal disorder

    • athetosis

    • ataxia

    • Gross Motor Function Classification System

    • GMFCS

    • Functional Mobility Scale

    • FMS

    • computer-based gait analysis

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

2007 OTA Fracture and Dislocation Classification: Part I. Overview

The revised Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) Fracture and Dislocation Classification compendium republished in 2007 provides a complete system of fracture classification for all bones in the body that uses consistent methodology throughout the skeletal system. The 2007 OTA Fracture and Dislocation Classification has been established as the standard for the classification of fractures by OTA, AO, SociétéInternationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie (SICOT), the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, and many other organizations and publications and can now be recommended as the standard fracture classification for general use. Part I of this two-part series reviews the current OTA classification compendium, highlights its features, and describes the 2007 changes; part II provides examples of applying the classification to specific fractures.

    • Keywords:
    • patella

    • scapula

    • clavicle

    • skull and facial bone

    • long bone fractures

    • humerus

    • tibia

    • forearm segment

    • radius and ulna

    • femur

    • pelvis

    • tarsal and metatarsal

    • spine

    • fracture-dislocation

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma