okoj, Volume 1, No. 6

Fractures of the Lateral Condyle of the Humerus in Children

Lateral condylar fractures are type IV physeal injuries, which involve the distal humeral articular surface. The fracture line begins in the distal humeral metaphysis and either crosses the physis directly into the capitellum or traverses medially along it and penetrates the trochlea.

    • Keywords:
    • elbow fracture

    • elbow joint fracture

    • broken elbow

    • broken arm

    • distal humerus fracture

    • arthrography

    • casting

    • cast immobilization

    • percutaneous pin fixation

    • internal fixation

    • nonunion

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Pediatric Orthopaedics


Nonunion has classically been defined as the cessation of all bone healing processes. Practically, nonunion has been considered when a fracture has failed to unite after some time period, six months being chosen most often. The specific constellation of factors and influences that causes a failure of healing is unique to the individual case. The etiology of nonuion is often multifactorial. The incidence of nonunion varies tremendously by fracture site. Even for common fractures, some sites, such as the femoral neck, have a very high incidence of nonunion, while others, such as the distal radius, have a very low incidence. The treatment options for long bone nonunion can be divided into surgical and nonsurgical.

This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of nonunion and presents management options, including nonsurgical and surgical. Specific surgical techniques reviewed in detail include intertrochanteric osteotomy for nonunion of the femoral neck and posterolateral bone graft for tibial nonunion.

    • Keywords:
    • measurement of cortical continuity

    • tomography

    • bone scanning

    • scintigraphy

    • femoral neck fracture nonunion

    • intertrochanteric osteotomy

    • tibial shaft fracture nonunion

    • posterolateral bone graft

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma